ON-Lion Letter
While "international human rights agreements provide a valuable framework for determining what constitutes permissible and impermissible filtering" of free expression on the Internet through surveillance and/or censorship, "these instruments fall short of the enforcement end due to widespread filtering and states' apparent reluctance to take action against one another," according to Mary Rundle and Malcolm Birdling.

Rundle's and Birdling's "Filtering and the International System:  A Question of Commitment" is one chapter in a new book, Access Denied:  The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering.  Rundle is a visiting fellow of the Oxford Internet Institute (OII) at the University of Oxford, a fellow of The Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, and a nonresident fellow of The Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School.  Birdling is an OII researcher.

Rundle and Birdling also note that domestic approaches to holding private actors accountable internationally for filtering are inadequate on their own.  They suggest that states consider drawing up a new treaty to apply some standards to private actors and that, in the meantime, private actors consider proactively pledging to protect human rights through voluntary commitments.

The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation in Milwaukee supports Rundle's work.
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